Cyber warfare is officially the fifth domain of warfare, the others being air, land, sea, and space. This is how the United States divides battle space for the DoD Service Components. As early as 1995, the concept of a fifth dimension within warfare was considered. Back then, it was known as Information Operations (IO), comprised of Military Deception (MILDEC), Psychological Operations (PSYOP), Electronic Warfare (EW), Operational Security (OPSEC) and finally Computer Network Operations (CNO). Cyber warfare falls within CNO, which is broken down as Computer Network Attack (CNA), Computer Network Exploitation (CNE), and Computer Network Defense (CND). These terms have changed slightly over the years but the concept–and the work–is essentially the same. Each element within the CNO pillar can be thought of as a component of cyber warfare. Each branch of service within the DoD has created groups that operate in each of the three sub-sections of the CNO pillar. This fact alone indicates how seriously the government takes cyber warfare.


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